Place your cast iron skillet or pan on the middle rack of the oven. Set the oven to bake at 500°F or the highest possible temperature (my oven goes up to 550°F). Let the oven and cast iron skillet or pan preheat for 45 minutes to 1 hour.
If your dough was refrigerated, place it on the counter and let it come to room temperature while the pan heats up in the oven. If you are working with a 12- to 14-inch cast iron skillet, keep the dough ball in one piece. If your cast iron skillet is 10 inches in diameter or smaller, cut the dough ball in half to make two pizzas. (Cover the second half of dough with an upside-down bowl while you make the first pizza. Then, when the first pizza is done, quickly slide it onto a cutting board and assemble the second pizza using the instructions in step 6.)
Mix your sauce, grate or cube your cheese(s), cook your meat(s), and/or chop raw veggie toppings. (See ingredient list above for general topping quantities for a 12- to 14-inch pizza.)
Transfer the pizza dough to a lightly floured surface. Roll or stretch it out to the size of your cast iron skillet.
Place a trivet or folded towel on your work surface, and make sure all of your prepped toppings are within arm's reach. Pour a little olive oil (2 or 3 tablespoons) into a small bowl or ramekin, fold up a few pieces of paper towel, and grab a pair of tongs (this is for oiling your pan).
Using heavy-duty oven mitts, carefully transfer the cast iron pan from the oven to the trivet on your work surface. BE CAREFUL: THE PAN WILL BE VERY HOT. Grab the folded-up paper towels with the tongs, dip the paper towel wad in the olive oil, and wipe it evenly all over the inside of the hot cast iron skillet. Quickly lay the rolled or stretched-out dough in the skillet and press it out to the edges of the pan, being careful not to burn your fingers. Arrange the sauce, cheese, and toppings on top of the dough. If desired, season with a pinch of salt, a grind or two of black pepper, and a drizzle of olive oil.
Put your oven mitts back on and return the cast iron skillet to the middle oven rack. Bake the pizza for 10 to 15 minutes, until the crust is golden around the edges and the bottom is evenly browned. (At the 10-minute mark, use a spatula to lift the pizza out of the pan and take a peek at the bottom of the crust.)
Using your oven mitts, remove the cast iron skillet from the oven. Carefully slide the pizza out of the pan and onto a cutting board. Let it cool down for a few minutes, then slice and serve.